Can Early Dark Energy be Probed by the High-Redshift Galaxy Abundance?

Kavli Affiliate: Hu Zhan

| First 5 Authors: Weiyang Liu, Hu Zhan, Yan Gong, Xin Wang,

| Summary:

The Hubble tension and $sigma_{8}$ tension are two of the major issues of
the standard $Lambda$ Cold Dark Matter ($Lambda$CDM) model. The analysis of
the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data acquired by the Atacama Cosmology
Telescope (ACT) and the large-scale ($elllesssim1300$) Planck Telescope
manifest their preference for the Early Dark Energy (EDE) theory, which was set
to alleviate the Hubble tension by decreasing the sound horizon $r_{s}$, and
gives $H_{0} approx 72 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}$. However, the EDE model is
commonly questioned for exacerbating the $sigma_8$ tension on top of the
$Lambda$CDM model, and its lack of preference from the late-time matter power
spectrum observations, e.g., Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). In
light of the current obscurities, we inspect if the high redshift galaxy
abundance, i.e., Stellar Mass Function/Density (SMF/SMD) and Luminosity
Function (LF), can independently probe the EDE model and ameliorate the
challenges it encounters. Our result shows that the EDE model produces more
observable galaxies than $Lambda$CDM at $z>8$. The LF and SMD, in particular,
are consistent with the recent unexpectedly high results observed by the James
Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which may posit another observational hint of EDE.
This result also implies an efficient suppression mechanism of the galaxy
formation rate that leads to the conversion between EDE- and $Lambda$CDM-like
Universe around $zsim7-10$, and that $sigma_{8}$ tension could be more of a
tension of galaxy evolution than cosmology, hence diminishing its impact on EDE
or $Lambda$CDM theory.

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