Low disorder and high valley splitting in silicon

Kavli Affiliate: Menno Veldhorst

| First 5 Authors: Davide Degli Esposti, Lucas E. A. Stehouwer, Önder Gül, Nodar Samkharadze, Corentin Déprez

| Summary:

The electrical characterisation of classical and quantum devices is a
critical step in the development cycle of heterogeneous material stacks for
semiconductor spin qubits. In the case of silicon, properties such as disorder
and energy separation of conduction band valleys are commonly investigated
individually upon modifications in selected parameters of the material stack.
However, this reductionist approach fails to consider the interdependence
between different structural and electronic properties at the danger of
optimising one metric at the expense of the others. Here, we achieve a
significant improvement in both disorder and valley splitting by taking a
co-design approach to the material stack. We demonstrate isotopically-purified,
strained quantum wells with high mobility of 3.14(8)$times$10$^5$ cm$^2$/Vs
and low percolation density of 6.9(1)$times$10$^{10}$ cm$^{-2}$. These low
disorder quantum wells support quantum dots with low charge noise of 0.9(3)
$mu$eV/Hz$^{1/2}$ and large mean valley splitting energy of 0.24(7) meV,
measured in qubit devices. By striking the delicate balance between disorder,
charge noise, and valley splitting, these findings provide a benchmark for
silicon as a host semiconductor for quantum dot qubits. We foresee the
application of these heterostructures in larger, high-performance quantum

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