Single-cell genomics reveals region-specific developmental trajectories underlying neuronal diversity in the human hypothalamus

Kavli Affiliate: Arnold Kriegstein

| Authors: Brian R Herb, Hannah J Glover, Aparna Bhaduri, Carlo Colantuoni, Tracy L Bale, Kimberly Siletti, Sten Linnarsson, Rebecca D Hodge, Ed Lein, Arnold Kriegstein, Claudia Doege and Seth A Ament

| Summary:

Abstract The development and diversity of neuronal subtypes in the human hypothalamus has been insufficiently characterized. We sequenced the transcriptomes of 40,927 cells from the prenatal human hypothalamus spanning from 6 to 25 gestational weeks and 25,424 mature neurons in regions of the adult human hypothalamus, revealing a temporal trajectory from proliferative stem cell populations to mature neurons and glia. Developing hypothalamic neurons followed branching trajectories leading to 170 transcriptionally distinct neuronal subtypes in ten hypothalamic nuclei in the adult. The uniqueness of hypothalamic neuronal lineages was examined developmentally by comparing excitatory lineages present in cortex and inhibitory lineages in ganglionic eminence from the same individuals, revealing both distinct and shared drivers of neuronal maturation across the human forebrain. Cross-species comparisons to the mouse hypothalamus identified human-specific POMC populations expressing unique combinations of transcription factors and neuropeptides. These results provide the first comprehensive transcriptomic view of human hypothalamus development at cellular resolution. One-Sentence Summary Using single-cell genomics, we reconstructed the developmental lineages by which precursor populations give rise to 170 distinct neuronal subtypes in the human hypothalamus. Competing Interest Statement A.R.K. is a cofounder and board member of Neurona Therapeutics. The remaining authors declare no competing interests.

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