Scalable Multipartite Entanglement of Remote Rare-earth Ion Qubits

Kavli Affiliate: Andrei Faraon

| First 5 Authors: Andrei Ruskuc, Chun-Ju Wu, Emanuel Green, Sophie L. N. Hermans, Joonhee Choi

| Summary:

Single photon emitters with internal spin are leading contenders for
developing quantum repeater networks, enabling long-range entanglement
distribution for transformational technologies in communications and sensing.
However, scaling beyond current few-node networks will require radical
improvements to quantum link efficiencies and fidelities. Solid-state emitters
are particularly promising due to their crystalline environment, enabling
nanophotonic integration and providing spins for memory and processing.
However, inherent spatial and temporal variations in host crystals give rise to
static shifts and dynamic fluctuations in optical transition frequencies,
posing formidable challenges in establishing large-scale, multipartite
entanglement. Here, we introduce a scalable approach to quantum networking that
utilizes frequency erasing photon detection in conjunction with adaptive,
real-time quantum control. This enables frequency multiplexed entanglement
distribution that is also insensitive to deleterious optical frequency
fluctuations. Single rare-earth ions are an ideal platform for implementing
this protocol due to their long spin coherence, narrow optical inhomogeneous
distributions, and long photon lifetimes. Using two 171Yb:YVO4 ions in remote
nanophotonic cavities we herald bipartite entanglement and probabilistically
teleport quantum states. Then, we extend this protocol to include a third ion
and prepare a tripartite W state: a useful input for advanced quantum
networking applications. Our results provide a practical route to overcoming
universal limitations imposed by non-uniformity and instability in solid-state
emitters, whilst also showcasing single rare-earth ions as a scalable platform
for the future quantum internet.

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