Kavli Affiliate: John Reynolds
| Authors: Kandarp Dave, Donna B Stolz, Venugopal R Venna, Victoria A. Quaicoe, Michael E Maniskas, Michael John Reynolds, Riyan Babidhan, Duncan X Dobbins, Maura N. Farinelli, Abigail Sullivan, Tarun N. Bhatia, Hannah Yankello, Rohan Reddy, Younsoo Bae, Rehana K Leak, Sruti Shiva, Louise D McCullough and Devika Soundara Manickam
Abstract Ischemic stroke causes brain endothelial cell (BEC) death and damages tight junction integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We harnessed the innate mitochondrial load of endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) and utilized mixtures of EV/exogenous heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) as a one-two punch strategy to increase BEC survival (via EV mitochondria) and preserve their tight junction integrity (via HSP27 effects). We demonstrated that the medium-to-large (m/lEV) but not small EVs (sEV) transferred their mitochondrial load, which subsequently colocalized with the mitochondrial network of the recipient primary human BECs. BECs treated with m/lEVs increased relative ATP levels and displayed superior mitochondrial function. Importantly, m/lEVs isolated from oligomycin (mitochondrial complex V inhibitor) or rotenone (mitochondrial complex I inhibitor)-exposed BECs (RTN-m/lEVs or OGM-m/lEVs) did not increase BECs ATP levels compared to naive m/lEVs. In contrast, RTN-sEV and OGM-sEV functionality in increasing cellular ATP levels was minimally impacted in comparison to naive sEVs. Intravenously administered m/lEVs showed a reduction in brain infarct sizes compared to vehicle-injected mice in a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic stroke. We formulated binary mixtures of human recombinant HSP27 protein with EVs: EV/HSP27 and ternary mixtures of HSP27 and EV with cationic polymer poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (diethyltriamine): (PEG-DET/HSP27)/EV. (PEG-DET/HSP27)/EV and EV/HSP27 mixtures decreased the paracellular permeability of small and large molecular mass fluorescent tracers in oxygen glucose-deprived primary human BECs. This one-two-punch approach to increase BEC metabolic function and tight junction integrity is a promising strategy for BBB protection and prevention of long-term neurological dysfunction post-ischemic stroke. Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.