Discovery of a protocluster core associated with an enormous Ly$α$ Nebula at $z = 2.3$

Kavli Affiliate: Ran Wang

| First 5 Authors: Qiong Li, Ran Wang, Helmut Dannerbauer, Zheng Cai, Bjorn Emonts

| Summary:

The MAMMOTH-1 nebula at $z=2.317$ is an enormous Ly$alpha$ nebula (ELAN)
extending to a $sim$440 kpc scale at the center of the extreme galaxy
overdensity BOSS 1441. In this paper, we present observations of the $rm
CO(3-2)$ and 250 GHz dust-continuum emission from the MAMMOTH-1 using the IRAM
NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array. Our observations show that $rm CO(3-2)$
emission in this ELAN has not extended widespread emission into the circum- and
inter-galactic media. We also find a remarkable concentration of six massive
galaxies in $rm CO(3-2)$ emission in the central $sim$100 kpc region of the
ELAN. Their velocity dispersions suggest a total halo mass of $M_{200c} sim
10^{13.1} M_{odot}$, marking a possible protocluster core associated with the
ELAN. The peak position of the $rm CO(3-2)$ line emission from the obscured
AGN is consistent with the location of the intensity peak of MAMMOTH-1 in the
rest-frame UV band. Its luminosity line ratio between the $rm CO(3-2)$ and
$rm CO(1-0)$ $r_{3,1}$ is 0.61$pm$0.17. The other five galaxies have $rm
CO(3-2)$ luminosities in the range of (2.1-7.1)$times 10^9$ K $rm km,s^{-1}$
pc$^2$, with the star-formation rates derived from the 250GHz continuum of
($<$36)-224 $M_{odot}$yr$^{-1}$. Follow-up spectroscopic observations will
further confirm more member galaxies and improve the accuracy of the halo mass

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