Kavli Affiliate: Pau Amaro Seoane

| First 5 Authors: Yu-Peng Zhang, Yan-Bo Zeng, Yong-Qiang Wang, Shao-Wen Wei, Pau Amaro Seoane

| Summary:

Future space-borne gravitational-wave detectors will observe the

gravitational waves in the milli-Hz. Extreme-mass-ratio inspirals with central

supermassive black holes are very important sources that could provide the

information of the vicinity of black holes. The event horizon separates the

inner region of a black hole and there is nothing that can escape from this

region. When the central supermassive compact object is a regular and

horizonless rotating boson star, a small body could pass through the center and

follow novel types of orbits. These will generate the gravitational waves that

can not be obtained in the scenario corresponding to an extreme-mass-ratio

inspiral with a central supermassive black hole. This can be used to examine

whether a supermassive rotating boson star is present at the centers of

galaxies. In this work, we consider an extreme-mass-ratio inspiral system

described by a small compact object inspiralling into a central supermassive

rotating boson star. Integrating four types of special equatorial geodesics and

using the numerical kludge method with quadrupole approximation, we obtain the

corresponding gravitational waveforms and find that there are high-frequency

gravitational radiation pulses in such system. The frequencies of the

gravitational radiation pulses could be in the magnitude of $10^{-1}$Hz and the

whole gravitational wave parts are in the milli-Hz. By assuming the masses of

the central supermassive rotating boson star and small compact object to be

$10^6 M_odot$ and $10 M_odot$ and assuming a distance of $1text{Gpc}$, we

show that the gravitational radiation pulses could be detected by the

space-borne gravitational-wave detectors. Our results will provide a possible

evidence to distinguish the astrophysical compact objects in the galactic

centers.

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