Probing Strong Coupling between a Microwave Cavity and a Spin Ensemble with Raman Heterodyne Spectroscopy

Kavli Affiliate: Andrei Faraon

| First 5 Authors: Gavin G. G. King, Peter S. Barnett, John G. Bartholomew, Andrei Faraon, Jevon J. Longdell

| Summary:

Raman heterodyne spectroscopy is a powerful tool for characterizing the
energy and dynamics of spins. The technique uses an optical pump to transfer
coherence from a spin transition to an optical transition where the coherent
emission is more easily detected.
Here Raman heterodyne spectroscopy is used to probe an isotopically purified
ensemble of erbium dopants, in a yttrium orthosilicate (Y$_2$SiO$_5$) crystal
coupled to a microwave cavity. Because the erbium electron spin transition is
strongly coupled to the microwave cavity, we observed Raman heterodyne signals
at the resonant frequencies of the hybrid spin-cavity modes (polaritons) rather
than the bare erbium spin transition frequency. Using the coupled system, we
made saturation recovery measurements of the ground state spin relaxation time
T$_1$ = 10$pm$3 seconds, and also observed Raman heterodyne signals using an
excited state spin transition. We discuss the implications of these results for
efforts towards converting microwave quantum states to optical quantum states.

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