The Ophiuchus DIsc Survey Employing ALMA (ODISEA)-III: the evolution of substructures in massive discs at 3-5 au resolution

Kavli Affiliate: David A. Principe

| First 5 Authors: Lucas A. Cieza, Camilo González-Ruilova, Antonio S. Hales, Paola Pinilla, Dary Ruíz-Rodríguez

| Summary:

We present 1.3 mm continuum ALMA long-baseline observations at 3-5 au
resolution of 10 of the brightest discs from the Ophiuchus DIsc Survey
Employing ALMA (ODISEA) project. We identify a total of 26 narrow rings and
gaps distributed in 8 sources and 3 discs with small dust cavities (r $<$10
au). We find that two discs around embedded protostars lack the clear gaps and
rings that are ubiquitous in more evolved sources with Class II SEDs. Our
sample includes 5 objects with previously known large dust cavities (r $>$20
au). We find that the 1.3 mm radial profiles of these objects are in good
agreement with those produced by numerical simulations of dust evolution and
planet-disc interactions, which predict the accumulation of mm-sized grains at
the edges of planet-induced cavities. Our long-baseline observations resulted
in the largest sample of discs observed at $sim$3-5 au resolution in any given
star-forming region (15 objects when combined with Ophiuchus objects in the
DSHARP Large Program) and allow for a demographic study of the brightest
$sim5%$ of the discs in Ophiuchus (i.e. the most likely formation sites of
giant planets in the cloud). We use this unique sample to propose an
evolutionary sequence and discuss a scenario in which the substructures
observed in massive protoplanetary discs are mainly the result of planet
formation and dust evolution. If this scenario is correct, the detailed study
of disc substructures might provide a window to investigate a population of
planets that remains mostly undetectable by other techniques.

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