Kavli Affiliate: Slawomir Gras

| First 5 Authors: David Reitze, Rich Abbott, Carl Adams, Rana Adhikari, Nancy Aggarwal

| Summary:

Recent gravitational-wave observations from the LIGO and Virgo observatories

have brought a sense of great excitement to scientists and citizens the world

over. Since September 2015,10 binary black hole coalescences and one binary

neutron star coalescence have been observed. They have provided remarkable,

revolutionary insight into the "gravitational Universe" and have greatly

extended the field of multi-messenger astronomy. At present, Advanced LIGO can

see binary black hole coalescences out to redshift 0.6 and binary neutron star

coalescences to redshift 0.05. This probes only a very small fraction of the

volume of the observable Universe. However, current technologies can be

extended to construct "$3^mathrm{rd}$ Generation" (3G) gravitational-wave

observatories that would extend our reach to the very edge of the observable

Universe. The event rates over such a large volume would be in the hundreds of

thousands per year (i.e.tens per hour). Such 3G detectors would have a 10-fold

improvement in strain sensitivity over the current generation of instruments,

yielding signal-to-noise ratios of 1000 for events like those already seen.

Several concepts are being studied for which engineering studies and reliable

cost estimates will be developed in the next 5 years.

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