ALMA observations of Elias 2-24: a protoplanetary disk with multiple gaps in the Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud

Kavli Affiliate: David Principe

| First 5 Authors: Lucas A. Cieza, Simon Casassus, Sebastian Perez, Antonio Hales, Miguel Carcamo

| Summary:

We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum observations at 0.2" (25 au) resolution of
Elias 2-24, one of the largest and brightest protoplanetary disks in the
Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud, and report the presence of three partially resolved
concentric gaps located at ~20, 52, and 87 au from the star. We perform
radiative transfer modeling of the disk to constrain its surface density and
temperature radial profile and place the disk structure in the context of
mechanisms capable of forming narrow gaps such as condensation fronts and
dynamical clearing by actively forming planets. In particular, we estimate the
disk temperature at the locations of the gaps to be 23, 15, and 12 K (at 20,
52, and 87 au respectively), very close to the expected snow-lines of CO (23-28
K) and N2 (12-15 K). Similarly, by assuming that the widths of the gaps
correspond to 4-8 x the Hill radii of forming planets (as suggested by
numerical simulations), we estimate planet masses in the range of 0.2-1.5
M_Jup, 1.0-8.0 M_Jup, and 0.02-0.15 M_Jup for the inner, middle, and outer gap,
respectively. Given the surface density profile of the disk, the amount of
"missing mass" at the location of each one of these gaps (between 4 and 20
M_Jup) is more than sufficient to account for the formation of such planets.

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