On Sun-to-Earth Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections: 2. Slow Events and Comparison with Others

Kavli Affiliate: John D. Richardson

| First 5 Authors: Ying D. Liu, Huidong Hu, Chi Wang, Janet G. Luhmann, John D. Richardson

| Summary:

As a follow-up study on Sun-to-Earth propagation of fast coronal mass
ejections (CMEs), we examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of slow CMEs
combining heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. Three events of
particular interest, the 2010 June 16, 2011 March 25 and 2012 September 25
CMEs, are selected for this study. We compare slow CMEs with fast and
intermediate-speed events, and obtain key results complementing the attempt of
citet{liu13} to create a general picture of CME Sun-to-Earth propagation: (1)
the Sun-to-Earth propagation of a typical slow CME can be approximately
described by two phases, a gradual acceleration out to about 20-30 solar radii,
followed by a nearly invariant speed around the average solar wind level, (2)
comparison between different types of CMEs indicates that faster CMEs tend to
accelerate and decelerate more rapidly and have shorter cessation distances for
the acceleration and deceleration, (3) both intermediate-speed and slow CMEs
would have a speed comparable to the average solar wind level before reaching 1
AU, (4) slow CMEs have a high potential to interact with other solar wind
structures in the Sun-Earth space due to their slow motion, providing critical
ingredients to enhance space weather, and (5) the slow CMEs studied here lack
strong magnetic fields at the Earth but tend to preserve a flux-rope structure
with axis generally perpendicular to the radial direction from the Sun. We also
suggest a "best" strategy for the application of a triangulation concept in
determining CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics, which helps to clarify confusions
about CME geometry assumptions in the triangulation and to improve CME analysis
and observations.

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